Trafficking in Persons Report 2012 CYPRUS
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Adults and children who have survived violence and trauma remain vulnerable to future exploitation. United States Federal Law criminalises trafficking in persons, which includes both sex trafficking and forced labour. Forced labour section , trafficking with respect to peonage, slavery, involuntary servitude, or forced labour, section , and sex trafficking of children or by force, fraud, or coercion section are prohibited under Chapter 77, Title 18 of the US Criminal Code.
Forced marriage is not illegal at the federal level. Only eight US states, plus Washington, D. While all states set 18 or older as the minimum age for marriage without parental consent, many states allow marriage at a younger age with parental consent; 25 states set no minimum age limit. The US Federal government funds the National Human Trafficking Hotline operated by Polaris that provides a free multilingual hotline and texting service for those seeking to report suspected incidents of modern slavery or to receive assistance in leaving a situation of modern slavery.
There are also free legal services for victims of modern slavery and there is a legal framework that requires restitution or compensation be sought for victims of modern slavery. There are, however, reports that victims do face arrest for crimes committed while in modern slavery. Children in particular are vulnerable to arrest for commercial sexual exploitation.
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, in , children were arrested for prostitution and commercialised vice offences. The government has a strategic action plan on victim services, against which it releases annual status reports. Labour inspections are conducted in the informal sector, such as construction and agriculture, and can be requested through the US Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division. This division is charged with upholding fair employment and labour standards without consideration of legal or documentation status of the affected persons.
Guidance on representing trafficked persons in compensation claims
Recent policy shifts in the United States to increase immigration enforcement is believed by leading human rights groups, such as Human Rights First, to deter modern slavery victims and exploited workers from seeking help due to their fear of deportation to their home countries. For example, the Executive Order on Public Safety has placed anti-slavery service providers in the position of facing repercussions for serving undocumented migrant victims of crime, including slavery victims.
These compliance plan requirements do not apply to contracts for commercially available off-the-shelf items. This is considered to be a widely enforced anti-corruption law and includes responsibility for third parties of corporations.
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The US Tariff Act of , section prohibits the import of goods produced or manufactured, wholly or in part, in any country, by convict, forced, or indentured labour, including forced or indentured child labour. These goods may be seized by the federal government and prevented from entering the United States.
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The importing entities may also face criminal investigation and prosecution. This provision permitted imports to continue to enter the United States even if there was evidence of forced labour in their production if domestic production was insufficient to meet US consumer demand. Customs and Border Control withhold release orders. There were previous efforts to establish a federal supply chain transparency law called H.
Country Studies United States. Women hold a banner during a protest of the caravan of mothers of Central American migrants in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico on December 22, Every year for the past 13 years, a group of women have travelled 4,km across Mexico searching for their children who went missing while migrating through the country from Central America. Prevalence The Global Slavery Index estimates that on any given day in there were , people living in conditions of modern slavery in the United States, a prevalence of 1.
Forced labour Forced labour occurs in many contexts in the United States. Imported products at risk of modern slavery While modern slavery clearly occurs within the United States, the realities of global trade and business make it inevitable that the United States, like many other countries globally, will also be exposed to the risk of modern slavery through the products it imports.
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Recommendations The government of the United States should: Strengthen legislation Enact federal legislation criminalising forced marriage. Raise minimum age for marriage, with or without parental consent to 18 in all states.
Extend legislation prohibiting criminalisation of child victims of trafficking to all states. Improve victim support Provide training and support for police, labour inspectors, and immigration officials to be able to identify victims of modern slavery and connect these individuals with services. Increase resources and capacity building for services providers, in particular increasing resources for services for men, boys and LGBTQI individuals.
Improve multisector collaboration and provide human trafficking specific training for mental health professionals.
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Strengthen coordination and transparency Support the development of a central repository of modern slavery through standardisation data collection to make national prevalence estimation more feasible in the United States context by improving data administration systems across government agencies. Support efforts to implement Multiple Systems Estimation MSE , which is the comparison of multiple concurrent administrative lists of identifiable modern slavery victim data to estimate the total population of slavery victims in a given context.
State and Local Level In the event that coordination at the federal agency level is not immediately actionable, support the implementation of state and local Multiple Systems Estimation efforts in key states or cities where victim data is most readily available, and the data infrastructure is sufficiently advanced. Support state MSE efforts through federal, state, and local law enforcement mandates to participate and share information with trusted and key stakeholders. Provide additional research funding to further identify the possible shortcomings and strengths of these methods.
Support other national prevalence estimates in the United States Generally, increase available federal funding for prevalence estimates at the local, state, and federal levels as well as increase requirements for baseline prevalence data reporting among government agencies and federally funded initiatives. Address risk factors Enforce core labour laws and labour standards for most vulnerable workers, including undocumented or seasonal workers in the United States from Latin and Central America. Provide additional regulatory support and labour inspections to all industries, including commercial sex work, seasonal agricultural work, and domestic work industries to increase the opportunities to identify victims of modern slavery.
Eradicate modern slavery from the economy Enact a federal supply chains transparency law, at a minimum, extending the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act to the whole of the US. This federal supply chain law should also include a central registry of businesses and repository of supply chain statements and should cover both government and business transparency.
Increase federal funding and resources for Customs and Border Protection to enforce Section of the Tariff Act to stop shipments of goods produced with forced labour at US borders. Footnotes 1 S. Page 2. Available from: www. Human Trafficking in Illicit Massage Businesses. For a detailed methodology of how these products were identified, please refer to Appendix 3 in the GSI report. Sex trafficking involves the use of force, coercion, or fraud to induce an adult to engage in commercial sex acts, or transporting a minor into the country or within the country to work in the sex trade.
Labor trafficking, meanwhile, entails the use of fraud, force, or coercion to induce a person to work in involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or conditions that could be considered slavery. As a result, a lot of the financial transactions indicative of smuggling involved MSBs or banks in Texas, Arizona and Southern California. Now we are seeing more of a national footprint. The aliens are moved to their ultimate destinations within the U. An intermediary for the smuggler then withdraws the money from the domiciled account elsewhere in the U.
The ICE HSI special agent added that interstate funnel accounts that facilitate this approach are receiving increased scrutiny from federal law-enforcement agents, and she praised financial institutions for working to combat the use of such accounts for criminal purposes.
As an example, she noted that JPMorgan Chase is barring counter deposits from individuals not pre-identified as being associated with a particular account. The ICE HSI agents also observed that while human smuggling and trafficking can involve aliens from anywhere in the world, many recent cases have centered around people brought into the U. Lord added that it was important that people working in banks and other financial-services companies not underestimate the importance of their contributions to the fight against trafficking.
If there is one thing I could convey, it is that every single SAR gets reviewed. We have teams dedicated to that effort. In some cases, an investigation is initiated because of one specific SAR or because several reports associated with an individual or business accumulate and suggest a pattern of activity. In other cases, an investigation is initiated for some other reason, and we draw on the reports as part of the investigation.
But regardless of whether the reports prompt us to open an investigation, or contribute to one already under way, they are critical to the successes we have had in combating human trafficking and other crimes. As part of its effort to partner with the financial community in fighting human trafficking HT , the U. Skip to content. Source: Banks D and Kyckelhahn T. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Office of Justice Programs.
Department of Justice. Sex trafficking victims were more likely to be black 40 percent or white 26 percent , compared to labor trafficking victims, who were more likely to be Hispanic 63 percent or Asian 17 percent. You might also like. AML Challenges , Exclusive.